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Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Age-Related Macular Degeneration

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AMD is medically known as (Age- related macular degeneration). This is condition of eyes which affects the small retina part which acts as a filter for eyes, i.e known as the Macula. Macular ailments developed due to age may affect the central vision. Though, it does not affect the vision completely causing total sight loss. […]

Carcinoma of thyroid

Carcinoma of thyroid

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CARCINOMA THYROID INCIDENCE 0.6 & 1.6% of cancers among men and women PRESENTATION  As Carcinoma Solitary nodule As Nodular Goitre RISK FACTORS     Radiation and Cellular oncogenes (kras, ret)     TSH hypersecretion may stimulate its growth     Thyroid nodule in a child     Pre-existing Thyroid disease     Familial – Gardners, Men II, Cowdens     Iodine     Hormonal factors HIGH AND LOW […]

What is Posterior Capsulotomy?

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Capsulotomy What is a Posterior Capsulotomy? Posterior capsulotomy is a surgical procedure, which is sometimes necessary to clear vision after cataract surgery is done with intraocular lens implant.  The normal lens inside the eye focuses light rays.  This lens has cellophane like outer lining called the capsule. The inner layers called the cortex and the nucleus is […]

Tendon suture

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TENDON SUTURING Instruments  Hypodermic needles  Small curved hemostat  Fine non-toothed forceps  Needle holder 3-0 and 5-0 prolene sutures  Suture cutting scissors   Preparation Match correct tendon ends using the position of the tendons & the corresponding shapes of the cut ends. Fix tendon with a needle and steady one end with a needle. Do not grasp […]

What are Eyelid Spasms?

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Eyelid Spasms What are Eyelid Spasms? Are There Different Types of Eyelid Spasms? The three most common types of eyelid spasms are eyelid twitch (or tic), essential blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. What Causes Minor Eyelid Spasms? The cause of minor eyelid twitching is unknown.  A slight spasm of the lower eyelid or even both eyelids is […]