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Staging TNM definitions All patients with breast cancer are staged according to the UICC TNM classification. Definitions for classifying the primary tumor (T) are the same for clinical and for pathologic classification. If the measurement is made by physical examination, the examiner will use the major headings (T1, T2, or T3). If other measurements, such as […]

Corneal Disease and Transplants-Facts

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Corneal Disease and Transplants, Facts. What Is the Cornea? The cornea is the clear front window of the eye.  It transmits light to the interior of the eye allowing us to see clearly.  Corneal injury, disease or hereditary conditions can cause clouding, distortion, and scarring.  Corneal clouding, much like frost on a glass windowpane, blocks the clear passage of light […]

Common eye emergencies

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COMMON EYE EMERGENCIES Chemical Splash Red Eye Sudden Profound Loss of Vision Ocular Laceration or Rupture.   Basic approach to the eye History   Symptoms Defective Vision Pain Redness Watering Discharge Flashes. Floaters Black spots In the event of Industrial accidents also note the following: Time of injury Nature or mechanism of injury Site of […]

What is Overflow Tearing? – In children

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Overflow Tearing What is Overflow Tearing? – In ChildrenDoctors refer to overflow tearing as a congenital stenosis of the nasal lacrimal drainage system. It is a common condition in infants and babies. In fact, approximately one-third of all infants are born with an overabundance of tears and mucus. It is also quite common for baby’s […]

HAEMOLYTIC TRANSFUSION REACTIONS INTRODUCTION Haemolytic transfusion reactions (HTR) occur because of the transfusion of incompatible blood. They can be immediate or delayed. Immediate HTRs are usually due to ABO incompatibilities, for example due to group A red cells being given to a group O patient. Rarely, antibodies to other blood group antigen systems may also be […]