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What Is Defective Color Vision?

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Defective Color Vision What Is Defective Color Vision? Normal perception of color is something most of us take for granted.  Color labels we attach to objects such as “red rose” and “green grass” have specific meaning only to people with normal color vision. “Colorblind” is an exaggerated term handed down over time, referring to individuals who […]

Injuries to the urinary tract

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Urinary Tract Injury  8-10 % of abdominal trauma is associated with renal trauma.   In the genitourinary system the kidney is the most commonly injured organ by external trauma. Ureteral injury caused by external violence is rare and more injuries are iatrogenic. The diagnosis and treatment of genitourinary trauma depends on the mechanism of injury, age […]

Nutritional support

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Outline of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition in Surgical Patients    INTRODUCTION   The purpose of this presentation is to give an outline of nutritional support (NS) in hospitalized surgical patients, planning of optimal and cost-effective NS, analysis of controversial topics, practical clinical guidelines and recent developments. Individual study of detailed literature is encouraged. It is hoped […]

Introduction to Evidence Based Medicine

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IMPROVING QUALITY OF HEALTH CARE BY EVIDENCE BASED CLINICAL PRACTICE What is Evidence Based Medicine?     Evidence Based Medicine (EBM), a term that did not exist a decade ago, has captured the imagination of clinicians and health policy makers. We now have journals exclusively devoted to EBM, databases on systematic reviews (like the Cochrane Collaboration), […]

Septic shock

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SEPTIC SHOCK (Please read in conjunction with tutorial on Haemorrhagic shock)   Definition of Septic shock  Septic shock is sepsis associated with hypotension, despite adequate fluid resuscitation and the manifestations of hypo perfusion such as : metabolic acidosis, oliguria, altered  mental status etc.  Related definitions  Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) It is a systemic inflammatory response to a […]