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Chlamydia

Chlamydia

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Chlamydia, is a common sexually transmitted disease which is caused by a bacterium that infects both men and women triggering serious permanent damage to a woman’s reproductive organs. A large number of cases of Chlamydia are not reported because; most of the people who are suffering from this disease do not show symptoms and thus […]

Injuries to the urinary tract

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Urinary Tract Injury  8-10 % of abdominal trauma is associated with renal trauma.   In the genitourinary system the kidney is the most commonly injured organ by external trauma. Ureteral injury caused by external violence is rare and more injuries are iatrogenic. The diagnosis and treatment of genitourinary trauma depends on the mechanism of injury, age […]

Statistical Inference: Estimation & Hypothesis Testing

STATISTICAL INFERENCE: ESTIMATION & HYPOTHESIS TESTING “A distinctive function of statistics is this: it enables the scientist to make a numerical evaluation of the uncertainty of his conclusion. ” – Snedecor Statistical inference involves two things: estimation and hypothesis testing. Using the results from a small sample of individuals as a measure of the levels […]

Critical appraisal of medical literature

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 CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF MEDICAL LITERATURE Why read journal articles? We all understand the need to keep abreast of the latest developments in our field of work. But a matter of concern is the ‘information explosion’ in every sphere of human endeavor. The enormous amount of journals and journal articles that are currently available make it […]

Measures of disease frequency

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MEASURES OF DISEASE FREQUENCY “All science is measurement.”Helmholtz”All true measurement is essentially comparative.” – Sir Henry Dale Measuring events (disease events or health events) is at the heart of epidemiology. If one can not quantify, one can not do epidemiological research. One of the simplest methods of measuring is just simply counting (frequencies of events). […]