Category: Endocrinology & Metabolism

Adrenal Incidentalomas

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Adrenal incidentalomas Definition: Incidentally detected adrenal masses, that are not suspected prior to radiologic investigations, are referred to as “adrenal incidentalomas”. It may also  be referred to as clinically inapparent adrenal mass. Radiologic procedures done for staging of various gastrointestinal and other malignancies which pick up adrenal masses are not considered “incidentalomas.” Frequency: In postmortem studies, the […]

Primary Osteoporosis

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Osteoporosis Primary Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is becoming increasingly common in clinical practice. It is a skeletal disorder characterised by reduction in bone mass / unit volume with accompanying microarchitectural damage that increases bone fragility and the risk of fractures. Osteoporosis leads to reduction in absolute bone mass with a normal ratio of unmineralised to mineralised bone matrix. Histologically the cortices are thinned and […]

Congenital Hypothyroidism

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Congenital Hypothyroidism Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) has existed since antiquity.  Sculptures of goitrous dwarfs were made as early as 400BC in South America.  Non goitrous sporadic congenital hypothyroidism was not reported until the beginning of Industrial Revolution.  In 1850 Thomas Curling recorded non-goitrous sporadic congenital hypothyroidism. Congenital hypothyroidism may be classified as permanent or transient.  The  most common […]

Primary Osteoporosis Thyrotoxic crisis

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THYROTOXIC CRISIS Thyrotoxic crisis or accelerated hyperthyroidism or thyroid storm is a life threatening but rare complication of hyperthyroidism. Thyrotoxic crisis is a state of disordered homeostasis resulting from acute decompensation of the cardiovascular, central nervous gastrointestinal and hepatorenal systems in the thyrotoxic patient. The superimposition of systemic illness or operative stress may represent the underlying pathophysiology […]