Category: Epidemiology

Statistical Computing: an introduction

Statistical Computing: an introduction

  • Comment : 0

STATISTICAL COMPUTING:AN INTRODUCTION What is statistical Computing? Statistical computing is basically analysing data using computers. The field of statistical computing is relatively recent. With the widespread computer access, data processing has become an easy task. Even dummies like doctors can process data these days! Not only has data analysis become easy, we can also perform […]

Introduction to Evidence Based Medicine

  • Comment : 0

IMPROVING QUALITY OF HEALTH CARE BY EVIDENCE BASED CLINICAL PRACTICE What is Evidence Based Medicine?     Evidence Based Medicine (EBM), a term that did not exist a decade ago, has captured the imagination of clinicians and health policy makers. We now have journals exclusively devoted to EBM, databases on systematic reviews (like the Cochrane Collaboration), […]

Meta-analysis: the analysis of analyses

  • Comment : 0

META-ANALYSIS:THE ANALYSIS OF ANALYSES “I am always certain about things that are a matter of opinion. ” – Charlie Brown Why do we need systematic renews? Traditionally, most journals many review articles which attempt to summarize the current state of knowledge on specific issues. In these reviews, the reviewers take the trouble of wading through […]

Critical appraisal of medical literature

  • Comment : 0

 CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF MEDICAL LITERATURE Why read journal articles? We all understand the need to keep abreast of the latest developments in our field of work. But a matter of concern is the ‘information explosion’ in every sphere of human endeavor. The enormous amount of journals and journal articles that are currently available make it […]

Clinical Trials: the architecture of experimental research

CLINICAL TRIALS: THE ARCHITECTURE OF EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH “Where the value of a treatment, new or old, is doubtful, there may be a higher moral obligation to test it critically than to continue to prescribe it year-in-year-out with the support of merely of custom or wishful thinking. ” -FHK Green The hierarchy of epidemiological research Epidemiological studies […]

Observational study designs

  • Comment : 0

OBSERVATIONAL STUDY DESIGNS “There an only a handful of ways to do a study properly but a thousand ways to do it wrong. ” – David Sackett Types of epidemiological studies Epidemiological studies are traditionally classified as either Observational or Experimental. The ultimate paradigm in epidemiologic research is an experiment where the investigator manipulates the intervention or exposure. In practice, […]

Validity of diagnostic & screening tests

Validity of diagnostic & screening tests

  • Comment : 0

EVALUATING DIAGNOSTIC AND SCREENING TESTS Defining normality and abnormality One of the central concerns in clinical medicine is differentiating the normal from the abnormal. How does one, for instance, decide that somebody has hypertension? This would not pose a big problem if the frequency distributions of BP for hypertensive people and normotensive people were completely […]

Errors in epidemiologic research

  • Comment : 0

ERRORS IN EPIDEMIOLOGIC RESEARCH Socrates was famous in Athens for saying, “Know thyself. ” It is said that one of his students said to him: “Socrates, you go around saying “Know thyself, ” but do you know yourself? ” Socrates was said to have replied, “No, but I understand something about this not knowing. “ […]

Associations & Causations

  • Comment : 0

ASSOCIATIONS & CAUSATIONS “All scientific work is incomplete – whether it be observational or experimental. All scientific work is liable to be upset or modified by advancing knowledge. That does not confer upon us a freedom to ignore the knowledge we already have or postpone the action that it appears to demand at a given […]

Measures of disease frequency

  • Comment : 0

MEASURES OF DISEASE FREQUENCY “All science is measurement.”Helmholtz”All true measurement is essentially comparative.” – Sir Henry Dale Measuring events (disease events or health events) is at the heart of epidemiology. If one can not quantify, one can not do epidemiological research. One of the simplest methods of measuring is just simply counting (frequencies of events). […]