Category: The Breast

Complications of mastectomy

Complications of mastectomy

  • Comment : 0

Complications of Mastectomy & Axillary Dissection Tutorial Content : 1. Introduction 2.Classification 3.List of complications 4.Management of individual complications  1. Introduction Post operative complications after Mastectomy & Axillary Dissection are : Usually preventable Easily recognisable Usually salvageable Well documented in literature  2.Classification of complications Intra operative Post operative early late 3.List of complications Death Major Haemorrhage […]

Staging

  • Comment : 0

Staging TNM definitions All patients with breast cancer are staged according to the UICC TNM classification. Definitions for classifying the primary tumor (T) are the same for clinical and for pathologic classification. If the measurement is made by physical examination, the examiner will use the major headings (T1, T2, or T3). If other measurements, such as […]

Diagnosis and assessment

  • Comment : 0

CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND DIAGNOSIS Carcinoma of the breast presents as a self discovered mass in the majority of instances. In countries where screening mammography is well established, the second common method of presentation is by screen detection. Physician discovered masses in the breast account for less than one quarter of the presentation and imply the […]

Benign breast disorders and diseases

Benign breast disorders and diseases

  • Comment : 0

Benign Breast Disease     Tutorial content : 1.Incidence 2.Aetio Pathogenesis 3.Classification 4.Pathological & Cytological features 5.Clinical Assessment 6.Management of individual problems  . 1.Incidence   The ratio of malignant : benign breast diseases (BBD) is approximately 1:10 in the West. No comprehensive Indian statistics are available. But it is suspected that the position may be similar to […]

Self breast examination

Self breast examination

  • Comment : 0

BREAST SELF EXAMINATION GUIDE   The following guide may be used for patient instruction : There is a rising incidence of Breast Disease in India, as a consequence of our unhealthy environment and lifestyle. Fortunately, the majority of these are benign problems while only a comparitive minority are cancers.  Breast Self Examination (BSE) is a simple, no – […]

Surgical anatomy

Surgical anatomy

  • Comment : 0

DEVELOPMENT, SURGICAL ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY OF THE BREAST   Development of the breast The breasts develop at 6-8 weeks of gestation from 2 strips of  ectoderm on the ventral aspect called the mammary ridges. The twin “milk lines” extend from the axillae to the pubic region. In humans, unlike other mammals, there is a persistence of  […]