Category: The Genito Urinary Tract

Pelvic organ prolapse and urinary incontinence

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Pelvic  Organ  Prolapse  &  Urinary  Incontinence Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) is a common pelvic floor dysfunction and a major cause of gynecologic surgery. Half of parous women may demonstrate some degree of prolapse. The incidence of prolapse increases with age (1). Prolapse is more common in white women (5.4% to 11%) (2, 3) than in black and Asian […]

Pelvic TB

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Pelvic Tuberculosis Tuberculosis is a common disease encountered in our country. The diseases like tuberculosis, which affected humans about 4000BC, still continues to be a global threat. Genito urinary TB is a common site of extra pulmonary TB (15-20% of extra pulmonary cases). The disease involves kidney, ureter, bladder or genital organs. Clinical features usually […]

Genito urinary TB

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GENITO URINARY TUBERCULOSIS  INCIDENCE: 15 To 20% of Tuberculosis patients have Genito Urinary TB as the prime focus. Tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection in AIDS patients. DEVELOPMENT OF DISEASE: All Tuberculous infections are acquired infections from the inhalation of droplet nuclei which reach the pulmonary alveoli. Upto 50% of the active disease occurs […]

Scrotal problems

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 DISORDERS OF THE SCROTUM AND ITS CONTENTS  The scrotum, a relatively small part of the body that houses several important organs that are subject to a  large number of disease processes. Anatomy The wall  is composed of skin, fascia and muscle in layers analogous to those of the anterior abdominal wall. The layers form an elastic […]

Prostate – carcinoma

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Prostate Cancer  Incidence and etiology. Prostate cancer is the second most common malignancy in male adults as well as the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. The American Cancer Society estimates that prostate cancer was newly diagnosed in 317,000 patients in 1996, and 41,000 deaths resulted. In 1998, the incidence of […]

Prostate benign disease

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Benign Diseases Of Prostate  The prostate is susceptible to a side variety of clinical diseases. These range from imflammatory and infectious to benign and malignant growth.   Anatomy of The Prostate   The prostate is a small, pyramid-shaped gland that surrounds the urethra and is located between the bladder and urogenital diaphragm. The prostate itself is surrounded […]

Urinary retention

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URINARY RETENTION Urinary retention is the occurrence of a total inability to void, and it may result from bladder outlet obstruction or from loss of detrusor contractility. In the later event neurogenic, myogenic, pharmacologic or psychogenic causes may be responsible. It may occur in an acute or chronic setting. In men with prostate outlet obstruction […]

Injuries to the urinary tract

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Urinary Tract Injury  8-10 % of abdominal trauma is associated with renal trauma.   In the genitourinary system the kidney is the most commonly injured organ by external trauma. Ureteral injury caused by external violence is rare and more injuries are iatrogenic. The diagnosis and treatment of genitourinary trauma depends on the mechanism of injury, age […]

Calculi

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URINARY STONES DISEASE    The occurrence of stones within the urinary tract is a problem that has plagued humans since the beginning of recorded history. Archaeologists have uncovered urinary stones in the mummified remains of Egyptians estimated to be more than 7,000 years old. Many improved methods of deal;ing with stones have been developed in […]

Haematuria

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HEMATURIA  Hematuria is the presence of blood in the urine. Greater than three red blood cells per high power microscopic field ( HPF) is significant .Hematuria should always be considered a symptom of serious disease until proven otherwise.Hematuria is usually categorized as A. Based on Microscopy  Gross – visible to the unaided eye Microscopic – More than […]