Category: The GI Tract

Ulcerative colitis

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ULCERATIVE COLITIS  Clincial features  Watery diarrhea with blood and mucus  Males and females are equally affected. The disease occurs between 25 and 45 years. There are relapses and remissions There are two main types (i)       Chronic type (95%) – frequent watery stools, 10 to 15 daily; there may be tenesmus with colicky abdominal pain; patient is […]

Bile duct injury

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BILE DUCT INJURY IATROGENIC BILE DUCT INJURYCauses Related to Gallbladder  & CBD surgery A) Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy B) Open Cholecystectomy C) CBD Exploration & T-Tube D) Stenting of CBD E) Sphincterotomy F) CBD Cyst Excision Not related to GB surgery A) Right or Left Hepatic Resection B) Portocaval shunt C) Hepatic Transplantation D) Radical Gastrectomy with first […]

Groin hernia repair

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Groin Hernia Repair     Inguinal Hernia – Historical landmarks  Hernia was first described by : Kaspar Stromayr ( 1559 ) Stromayr defined both direct and indirect hernias  Removed the testis to ease repair  Described dissection of indirect sac The anatomy of hernia was defined by the following clinicians :   Sir Percival Pott – the pathophysiology of   strangulation  (1757) […]

Tuberculosis of GI Tract

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TUBERCULOSIS OF THE GI TRACT Tuberculosis – the problem-facts and figures Tuberculosis is  a disease commonly found in third world countries and is linked to dense population, poor nutrition and sanitation. TB is the single largest infectious cause of death among adults in the world, accounting for nearly 2 million deaths per year.95% of new TB cases […]

Haematological aspects of splenectomy

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Haematological Aspects of Splenectomy Functions of the spleen  Clearance of opsonized cells by splenic macrophages. Trapping of abnormal RBCs by the reticular meshwork. Antigen presentation – in the periarteriolar lymphatic sheaths and in the marginal zones of the lymphatic follicles (the T cell zones). Antibody production – in the mantle zone of the lymphatic follicle […]

Principles of laporoscopic surgery

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MINIMAL ACCESS THERAPY 1.AIMS AND OBJECTIVES 1.1.Aims The aims of the course is that : Participants should be able to perform, with confidence, basic procedures such as laparoscopic cholecystectomy or lapraroscopic appendicectomy under the initial supervision of an experienced laparoscopic surgeon. They should also be able to act as proficient first assistant at laparoscopic procedures. […]