Category: Trauma and Critical Care Surgery

Reduction and stabilisation of fractures

Reduction and stabilisation of fractures

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PRINCIPLES OF FRACTURE TREATMENT General Treatment of injured patients First aid at the scene of accident Transport to a hospital Resuscitation : Airway, Breathing & Circulation Specific treatment of fractures Reduce Immobilise Rehabilitate REDUCE Can be closed or open reduction. Closed reduction or manipulation under anaesthesia for  Minimally displaced fractures. Fractures in children. Fractures that […]

Diagnosis and principles of treatment of Fractures

X-Ray Interpretation in Trauma      Chest (SUBCUTANEOUS EMPHYSEMA) Check  Soft tissue for Subcutaneous emphysema Bones for fractures Pleura Mediastinum Trachea Diaphragm Pelvis (BROKEN SHENTON’S LINE) Essential in polytrauma. Check  Disruption of the ring Sacro-iliac joints Shenton’s line Sacral fractures Ask for further views if indicated Cervical spine (C1 TO TI  SEEN) Check C1 to T1 must be […]

Burns– an Overview and Principles of Management

Burns– an Overview and Principles of Management

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Burns– an Overview and Principles of Management       Late 19thCentury Recognition that fluid depletion [rather than burn toxemia ] was the cause of early postburn mortality Blalock 1931 Specified plasma loss from circulation and stated that this was correctable 1940s Recognition of the fluid shifts Evans 1947 Formulae for fluid resuscitation relating weight of […]

Septic shock

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SEPTIC SHOCK (Please read in conjunction with tutorial on Haemorrhagic shock)   Definition of Septic shock  Septic shock is sepsis associated with hypotension, despite adequate fluid resuscitation and the manifestations of hypo perfusion such as : metabolic acidosis, oliguria, altered  mental status etc.  Related definitions  Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) It is a systemic inflammatory response to a […]

Haemorrhagic shock

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HAEMORRHAGIC SHOCK SYNDROME  Haemorrhagic shock  is a common type of Shock encountered as a surgical emergency. Definition of shock Shock is a syndrome  wherein there is an imbalance between the oxygen requirements of the tissues and the oxygen delivery. That is : Oxygen requirement  < >  Oxygen deliveryAs a consequence of this imbalance, there is […]

Clinical assessment of severely injured patients

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Assessment of Trauma Patients Incidence Trauma is the commnest cause of death in developed countries (30%) The patients are often less than 40 years of age. Aim of trauma care To reduce preventable deaths To reduce  prolonged disability & loss of productivity Causes of trauma Road Traffic Accidents Falls Assault War Wounds  (gunshot, stab injury […]